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hey malcolm-- whaddya think about Geography of Thought?
I happen to be reading it now-- and then noticed the link mentioned was Nisbett.
His approach is nicely observational; good companion reading to Jared Diamond, too.

Steve Sailer

So, Malcolm: Let's get down to brass tacks. Should James Watson have been fired?

tom h

This is a fascinating debate.

rappoppor, you ask,

"I think most people would agree that many of an individuals traits are inhereited (i.e., looks, athletic ability, personality). Why wouldn't IQ be like this?"

I would agree that many physical characteristics are obviously inherited, although also subsequently affected by environmental factors. It is not as clear, however, regarding mental characteristics such as personality and IQ.

Cognitive ability is manifest in many ways, and excellence in one does not necessarily imply excellence in others. As many have already commented, IQ is an evaluation of just one aspect of intelligence.

Mental capabilities may be enhanced with practice or training; they are not immutable characteristics such as eye colour, colour of skin, number of arms etc.

The links between the 'wiring' of the brain and conciousness are not fully understood, but there is evidence that the brain is capable of 'rewiring' to some extent, and that this indeed is the way in which we learn.

It would seem therefore that whilst hereditary characteristics may well influence the exact physiological starting point for an individual human conciousness, the extent to which that mind develops in any given direction could be largely due to the massive complexity of environmental influences and feedbacks it subsequently experiences.

This is compounded by the very nature of conciousness itself; the fact of self-awareness means that a factor such as confidence in one's own abilities is likely to have a direct effect on those abilities.

It is therefore hard to see a conclusive case for mental faculties being genetically determined. The absence of this hard evidence, coupled with the possibility of such a proposition actually affecting the scope of people's development, certainly puts the onus of proof on the hereditarians.


I would like to comment on something Dean Chung said, to wit: "perhaps there are other reasons that those Chinese merchants are successful besides the fact that they are so damned smart. Perhaps it is the culture inherited from the imperial bureaucracy and Confusianism. Perhaps it is the network effect with a whole gaggle of ex-pat Chinese all over the world."

Indeed, perhaps these cultural factors do play a large role in the success of the Chinese. However, have you considered the possibility that the cognitive traits that enable one to follow the strictures of Confucianism, or the imperial bureaucracy (to say nothing of the *creation* of a bureaucracy) are themselves partly inherited? Could the formation of broad networks of Chinese in North America also be due, in part, to an inherited trait or traits? In other words, I believe that culture is a function of biology. This is why, as I stated earlier, I am very pessimistic about the prospects of blacks: Their culture is so damned impoverished.

Your points about faddishness and outside societal pressures not withstanding, what about the notion that culture is an function of biology?



Doublehelix: if culture is a function of biology, and the ability to recognise cultural richness in a different culture can be seen as a function of a rich culture, then your double helix appears to be flawed somehow..


tomh-- I suppose you are responding to my remark that the culture of blacks is impoverished. It is difficult to tell exactly what you mean. However, I think it is hard to dispute that blacks in this country, especially inner-city blacks, have an impoverished culture. One only has to consider the stigmatization that intelligent, curious, scholarly black kids face. That kind of behavior is seen by many blacks as "acting white". With a culture like that, who needs racists?


@Malcolm Gladwell

You misuse (and perhaps misuderstand) standard deviation in your Dec. 17, 2007 New Yorker article. When you write "If an American born in the nineteen-thirties has an I.Q. of 100, the Flynn effect says that his children will have I.Q.s of 108, and his grandchildren I.Q.s of close to 120—more than a standard deviation higher.", you imply that the difference in SD *between* the data sets should be a source of interest, or concern.

Standard deviation (SD) tells you how far from the mean the data points *within a given data set* tend to be. So, for example, each of the three data sets {0, 0, 14, 14}, {0, 6, 8, 14} and {6, 6, 8, 8} has a mean of 7. Their standard deviations are 7, 5, and 1, respectively. The third set has a much smaller SD than the other two because its values are all close to 7.

But to say, "Wow, the difference between the SD of the first data set (7) and the last data set (1) is a full 6 standard deviations!", implies that something has improved or degraded, (that one of the groups scored higher or lower than the other group, for instane), when in fact, all the difference in SD tells us is that there was greater variation in data points WITHIN one data set, compared to the other data set (0 is farther away from 14 than 6 is from 8).

Bernie Douglas


IQ is a culturally, socially, and ideologically rooted concept; an index intended to predict success (i.e., to predict outcomes that are valued as success by some people) in a given society. Alfred Binet originally devised the IQ test to screen children for educational difficulties, and made clear its conceptual foundations (See Richardson, 2002). Test items are devised impressionistically by psychologists, and simply mimic the psycholinguistic structures of schooling and middle class clerical/administrative occupations. The items found on these tests are largely measures of achievement at various levels of competency (Sternberg, 1998, 1999, 2003a). IQ tests do not, nor do any tests, except dynamic tests (see Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2002a) that require learning at the time of the test, directly measure ability to learn. Rather, traditional tests focus much more on measuring past learning, which can be the result of differences in many factors, including motivation and available opportunities to learn.

This being said: It has been noted by many IQists (a term coined by Capron et al (1999) in an attempt to provide a decisive term for IQ advocates) that the average IQ of an undergraduate (graduate) is expected to be no less than 115 (Ostrowsky, 1999; Gottfredson, 1998), while an IQ of 125 is expected for those with more advanced professional degrees (Gottfredson, 1998). Herrnstein and Murray (1994) claimed that a dysgenic trend exists in western societies that foresee the establishment of a “cognitive elite.” While other IQ advocates believe that a general index of cognitive ability is the best single predictor of virtually all criteria considered necessary for success in life in the Western part of the developed world (Jensen, 1998; Schmidt, Ones & Hunter, 1992).

African-born blacks comprise 16 percent of the U.S. foreign-born black population and are considerably more educated than other black immigrants (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000). The vast majority come from minority white countries in East and West Africa (e.g. Kenya and Nigeria), and less than 2 percent originate from North or South Africa (World Factbook, 2004; Yearbook of immigration Statistics, 2003). In an analysis of Census Bureau data by the Journal of Blacks in higher education African immigrants to the United States were found more likely to be college educated than any other immigrant group (also see U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000). African immigrants to the U.S. were found to be more highly educated than any native-born ethnic group including white and Asian Americans (see also, Logan & Deane, 2003; Williams, 2005; The Economist, 1996). Between 43.8 and 48.9 percent of all African immigrants hold a college diploma (Charles, 2007; U.S. Census, 2000). This is slightly more than the percentage of Asian immigrants to the U.S., nearly “double” the rate of native-born white Americans, and nearly four times the rate of native-born African Americans (Williams, 2005; The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1999-2000). Black immigrants from Africa also have rates of college graduation that are “more” than twice that of the U.S.-born population, in general (Williams, 2005).

In 1997, 19.4 percent of all adult African immigrants in the United States held a graduate degree, compared to 8.1 percent of adult whites and 3.8 percent of adult blacks in the United States, respectively (The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1999-2000). This information shows that America has an equally large achievement gap between whites and African immigrants as there is between white and black Americans.

In the UK, 1988, the Commission for Racial Equality conducted an investigation on the admissions practices of St. George's, and other medical colleges, who set aside a certain number of places for minority students. This informal quota system reflected the percentage of minorities in the general population. However, minority students with Chinese, Indian, or black African heritage had higher academic qualifications for university admission than did whites (Blacks in Britain from the West Indies had lower academic credentials than did whites). In fact, blacks with African origins over the age of 30 had the highest educational qualifications of any ethnic group in the British Isles. Thus, the evidence pointed to the fact that minority quotas for University admissions were actually working against students from these ethnic groups who were on average more qualified for higher education than their white peers (Cross, 1994; Also see, Dustmann, Theodoropoulos, 2006).

Dustmann and Theodoropoulos (2006) provide a first thorough investigation of educational attainment and economic behavior of ethnic minority immigrants and their children in Britain. They studied how British born minorities perform in terms of education, employment and wages, when compared to their parent generation as well as to comparable groups of white natives, using 27 years of LFS data (Labour Force Survey). In terms of educational attainment their results suggest a strong educational background of Britain’s ethnic minority immigrant population. In addition, they show that second generation ethnic minorities do better than their parents, and substantially better than their white peers. For both generations Black Africans topped the list in both years of schooling/educational qualifications and wages/employment.

Again, when comparing immigrants in the United States one quickly finds that the racialist models adopted by many Psychologists do not always predict outcomes in the way one might expect. For example, it has been shown that black immigrants born from Zimbabwe (96.7 percent), Botswana (95.5 percent) have high school graduation rates that far exceed all white immigrant and native groups. Further, the average Nigerian immigrant (58.6 percent) is eight times more likely to have obtained a bachelors degree than the average Portuguese born (7.3 percent) (Dixon D, 2006; Dixon D, 2005).

The African born in the United States are concentrated in management or professional and sales or office-related occupations. Of the employed population age 16 and older in the civilian labor force, the African born are much more likely than the foreign born in general to work in management and professional occupations as well as sales and office occupations (i.e. clerical/administrative). Additionally, the African born were less likely to work in service, production, transportation, material moving, construction, and maintenance occupations than the foreign born in general (Dixon D, 2006). In the UK a study by Dr Yaojun Li, from Birmingham University, and Professor Anthony Heath, from Oxford University, found that Africans are more likely to be in professional and managerial jobs than white British men, with a large proportion, about 40%, holding these positions (Li and Heath, 2006).

The above information strongly suggests that African born blacks may have IQs that are a full standard deviation (15 points) above that of American born whites and slightly less than a full standard deviation “above” that of whites in the UK (see, Gottfredson, 1998; Ostrowsky, 1999; Richardson, 2002 for details). In the United States African born blacks and their offspring, exceed American born whites in most socio-economic indicators in ways that resemble the gaps seen between native born white and black Americans (Le, 2007; Le, 2007). If these gaps can not be said to have originated because of institutionalized racism or historical discrimination against whites, then why do whites fare so poorly on those more cognitive SES indicators (e.g. educational attainment/occupational status)? The differences in educational attainment between African born blacks and native born whites are particularly striking and could, based on “IQist” like thinking (eg Jensen), be indicative of genuine underlying intelligence differences between the two populations; a difference in favor of African born blacks. Higher cognitive indices are said to be predictive of more educational achievements and more education is predictive of higher intellectual outcomes (e.g., Brody, 1997; Ceci & Williams, 1997).

Furthermore, upon considering the immigrant status of most African blacks in the West, it should be noted that this group must also operate within a cultural framework that is not its own, and one that is typically hostile toward blacks - Further bolstering the argument of underlying intelligence differences in favor of African born blacks; that is, if one chooses to adopt a racist stance.

African born Blacks tend to be concentrated in higher level occupations, considered more cognitively challenging, than the average occupation of either American or British born whites. According to IQ advocates, and social Darwinists this should also be indicative of higher level intelligence (see Gottfredson, 1986). Furthermore, most IQ tests in popular use today were designed specifically to predict academic success and occupational status. Thus, it could be argued, based on this well document research, that the west’s “Cognitive Elite” -- eagerly discussed in Herrnstein and Murray’s (1994) pseudo-scholarly work “The Bell Curve” -- might be better described as black men and women from Africa, if not simply as non-whites from aboard.

Something else to note, according to the New York Times (Roberts, 2005) , for the first time in history more blacks are coming to the United States from Africa than during the slave trade. Since 1990, according to immigration figures, more Africans have arrived voluntarily than the total who disembarked in chains before the United States outlawed international slave trafficking in 1807. In other words: black African achievements can not simply be dismissed as those of a “small group” of elites entirely unrepresentative of the greater continent. Moreover, the Academic attainment levels and occupational achievements of African blacks are documented in the UK (Li and Heath, 2006; Dustmann, Theodoropoulos, 2006) as well as in Canada (Guppy and Davies, 1998; Boyd, 2002).

Crawford-Nutt (1976) found that African black students in westernized schools score higher in progressive matrix scores, a westernized concept, than American white students. The study was meant to examine the cultural-perceptual differences between groups, and demonstrated that one’s performance on western standardized tests may actually correspond more closely with quality and style of schooling than other factors. Super (1976) found that African infants sit and walk earlier than do their white counterparts in the United States and Europe. Black children in particular tend to show more advanced psychomotor development than European children, a finding that has been evidenced in a number of different studies. Some scholars argue that “African babies actually seemed to have been born at a more advanced stage of development, since many of their activities at less than a week corresponded to those performed by European children aged four to eight weeks” (Wilson, 1978). Others believe that the more advanced psychomotor skills demonstrated by black children may be better explained by various environmental factors.

In the United States, when matched for IQ with Whites, American Blacks show superior “Short Term Memory” (Nijenhuis et al., 2004); a finding that can not be explained as a byproduct of their educational experience or past learning, as African Americans are typically taught by less qualified teachers than their white counterparts and are provided with less challenging work (Hallinan 1994; Diamond et al., 2004). In Chicago, for example, the vast majority of schools placed on academic probation as part of the district accountability efforts were majority African-American and low-income (Bryk 2003; Diamond and Spillane 2004).

Finally: In a study conducted in the Caribbean, one that seemingly bypassed socio-cultural influences, Tizard and colleagues compared black and white orphans who had all been raised in the same highly enriched institutional environment. At five years of age, white children had IQs of 103, black children had IQs of 108, and children of mixed race had IQ of 106 (Tizard et al, 1972; Flynn, 1980).

Referenced Literature:

African Immigrants in the United States are the Nation's Most Highly Educated Group. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, No. 26 (Winter, 1999-2000), pp. 60-61doi:10.2307/2999156

Boyd, M. (2002). Educational Attainments of Immigrant Offspring: Success or Segmented Assimilation?

Brody, N. (1997). Intelligence, schooling, and society. American Psychologist, 52, 1046–1050.

Capron C., Adrian R. Vetta, Michel Duyme, and Atam Vetta (1999). Misconceptions of biometrical IQists. Current Psychology of Cognition 1999, 18 (2), 115-160

C, Dustmann, N, Theodoropoulos (2006): Ethnic Minority Immigrants and their Children in Britain. Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration, Department of Economics, University College London

Ceci, S. J., & Williams, W. M. (1997). Schooling, intelligence, and income. American Psychologist, 52, 1051–1058.

Charles C.Z, Massey, D.S., Mooney, M. and Kimberly C. Torres, (2007). Black Immigrants and Black Natives Attending Selective Colleges and universities in the United States. American Journal of Education 113 (Feb. 2007)

Crawford-Nutt. D. (1976). Are black scores on Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrixes an artifact of method of test presentation? Psychologia Africana, 16, 201-206.

Cross, T. (1994). Black Africans Now the Most Educated Group in British Society. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, No. 3 (spring, 1994), pp.92-93
Diamond, John B., Antonia Randolph, & James P. Spillane.

(2004) "Teachers’ Expectations and Sense of Responsibility for Student Learning: The Implications of School Race, Class, and Organizational Habitus." Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 35(1) 75-98

Diamond, John B. & James P. Spillane. (2004) "High Stakes Accountability in Urban Elementary Schools: Challenging or Reproducing Inequality?" Teachers College Record, Special Issue on Testing, Teaching, and Learning. 106(6): 1140-1171.

Dixon, D. (2006). Characteristics of the African Born in the United States. Migration Policy Institute. January, 20, 2006

Dixon, D. (2005). Characteristics of the European Born in the United States. Migration Policy Institute. February, 2005

Flynn, JR, (1980) "Race, IQ, and Jensen." London Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Fredric Weizmann, Neil I. Wiener, David L. Wiesenthal and Michael Ziegler (1990) Differential K Theory and Racial Hierarchies. Canadian Psychology, 1990 31:1

Guppy, Neil and Scott Davies (1998). Education in Canada: Recent Trends and Future Challenges. Ottawa: Statistics Canada and the Minister of Industry.

Gottfredson, L. S. (1998). The general intelligence factor. Scientific American Presents, 9(4), 24-29.

Gottfredson, L. S. (1986). Societal consequences of the g factor in employment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 379-410.

Hallinan, Maureen T. 1994. “Tracking From Theory to Practice”. Sociology of Education

Le, C.N. (2007). "Demographic Characteristics of Immigrants" Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America.

Le, C.N. (2007). "Socioeconomic Statistics & Demographics" Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America.

Lenore Ostrowsky (1999). College dropouts and standardized tests. Academic Questions, Springer New York Volume 12, Number 2 / June, 1999

Li, Y. (2006) Labour market trajectories of minority ethnic groups in Britain: 1972-2005, Presentation at the UPTAP Seminar, LGA, London, 28 November

Logan, J.R, Deane, G (2003). “Black Diversity in Metropolitan America.” Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban Regional Research University Albany

Richardson K (2002). What IQ tests test. Theory Psychol 12: 283314.

Roberts, Sam (2005). More Africans Enter U.S. Than in Days of Slavery. New York Times. February 21, 2005

Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (1999). A smelly 113° in the shade, or, why we do field research. APS Observer, 12, 1, 10–11, 20–21.

Sternberg, R. J., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2002a). Dynamic testing. New York: Cambridge University Press

Sternberg, R.J., and Williams, W.M. (1997). Does the Graduate Record Examination predict meaningful success in graduate training of psychologists? A case study. American Psychologist 52, 630-641

Sternberg, R. J. (2003a). What is an expert student? Educational Researcher, 32(8), 5–9.
Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Successful intelligence. New York: Plume.

Tizard, B., Cooperman, A and Tizard, J. (1972) "Enviromental effects on langauge development a study of young children in longstay residential nurseries." Child Development, 43: 342-306
The Economist (1996). 339 (7965): 27-28

U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000
World Factbook, 2004; Yearbook of immigration Statistics, 2003

Bernie Douglas


You seem obsessed with IQ. I suggest you look in to Peter H. Schonemann's (Psychometrician and Factor Analysis expert) work. He has shown that most heritability estimates for IQ tests, as well as the tests themselves, are worthless. Also see Jerry Hirsch, Oscar Kempthorn, Louis Guttman, Adrian R. Vetta and Christiane Capron. And stay away from James Flynn, Nisbett and the rest of APA garbage... They are in close concert with the ETS

As for Eric Turkheimer, who you seem to really enjoy, I have a 2003 paper of his which basically says that the heritability of IQ for those living under the poverty line if virtually zero; while the opposite is true of wealthier people. Still, Turkheimer is no Peter H. Schonemann, either technically or otherwise... Schonemann shows that purely environmental models fit heritability data better by a factor of 14 in some cases (Schonemann, 1997).

Reference paper:

Peter H. Schonemann (1997). Models and Muddles of Heritability. Genetica 99: 97-108, 1997

PS: Stop promoting this garbage. You're making an issue out of NOTHING!


@Bernie Douglas

You misuse (and perhaps misuderstand) standard deviation in your Dec. 28, 2007 comment to this blog article. When you write "The above information strongly suggests that African born blacks may have IQs that are a full standard deviation (15 points) above that of American born whites and slightly less than a full standard deviation “above” that of whites in the UK", you imply that the difference in SD *between* the data sets should be a source of interest, or concern.

Standard deviation (SD) tells you how far from the mean the data points *within a given data set* tend to be. So, for example, each of the three data sets {0, 0, 14, 14}, {0, 6, 8, 14} and {6, 6, 8, 8} has a mean of 7. Their standard deviations are 7, 5, and 1, respectively. The third set has a much smaller SD than the other two because its values are all close to 7.

But to say, "Wow, the difference between the SD of the first data set (7) and the last data set (1) is a full 6 standard deviations!", implies that something has improved or degraded, (that one of the groups scored higher or lower than the other group, for instance), when in fact, all the difference in SD tells us is that there was greater variation in data points WITHIN one data set, compared to the other data set (0 is farther away from 14 than 6 is from 8).

A higher or lower average, or a higher of lower mean, gives you important information *between* the data sets of two or more studies. SD does not. SD gives you important information about the data sets *within* each study, not between each study.


This is a good blogs I have enjoyed very much


As a high school educator in povertous district in Illinois, I tend to agree with all the Howard Gardner research on Intelligence. to sum up his writings, "the question is not 'How smart are you,' but rather, 'How are you smart?' "

I use various methods in the classroom (often from multiple different media forms, including literature, film, music, and reference) to connect ideas that students already have about themselves and the world around them to new ones I want them to build upon. I have told them countless times that education should be both a "window to the world, and a mirror upon themselves."

It is inspiring to be teaching students very complex concepts regarding historical, philosophical, and scientific debates, in a community where everyone told them 'they would never understand.'

Mark Alberstein

Why don't we stop playing God, and just educate for a change? What has ever been gained by "ranking" humanity? Somewhere the line between winners and losers has to be drawn, and then what becomes of the innate worth of the individual?


Help me understand how your current view on this topic of IQ squares with your comments under "Do Parents Matter" related to Judith Rich Harris' book. You seem to support the idea that IQ is largely inherited in that blog.


Help me understand how your current view on this topic of IQ squares with your comments under "Do Parents Matter" related to Judith Rich Harris' book. You seem to support the idea that IQ is largely inherited in that blog.


For those who believe that IQ is largely hereditary and race based consider that there may be up to 10 genes out of a total of 30,000 to 40,000 genes that determine the physical characteristics that we use to group individuals into racial groups. Generally we look at skin color, hair texture, and facial features to determine race. Is it really reasonable to assume that those same 10 genes that determine our race also determine our IQ? Doubtful. We can't even isolate the genes that determine IQ.

We are all 99.9% the same genetically. There are more genetic differences within racial groups than there are across racial groups. It is possible that a Kenyan is more genetically similar to a Norwegian than to an African-American.

medical videos research news

good topic


You wrote an interesting article. I'd like someone in the research community to take it as a starting point and conduct a scientific study about the IQ of blacks who do not live in the single-parent, inner-city environments you described in the story.

Obviously there will be some selection bias, because blacks living in stable families outside of predominantly black communities will tend to have higher IQ than the black mean.

medical videos research news


Bruno LoGreco

I have not read Turkheimer research either, however I am in agreement that given time and a suitable environment, anyone's IQ can increase.

Sometimes it has nothing to do with the traditional method of measuring your IQ, which only measures your verbal, numerical and spacial reasoning, it does not measure the level of creativity in a person and can produce false results.

Sometimes our intelligence is not apparent until we become adults.


Jewish people are the most intelligent. They win almost 40% of the Nobel Prize's and they have a small population of only 14 million. So by far they exceed the other races in intelligence. The other races having huge numbers and such small contributions.

IQ tests, test intellectual conformity, not creativity and originality. This would explain the Asian high IQ's. They as a people are the ultimate conformists.

In IQ tests there is typically only one answer to the problem. That problem being a social conformity to reason. But everyone knows that Genius's and all the greatest developments in the world are not the product of conformity. Conformity never breeds creativity. We can see this in the lack of influence the Asian population has had on Science. China used to be called the "sick man" of Asia. Their population is massive and their contribution to innovation is almost nil. We can see this lack of originality in their adoptation of European philosophies, I.e. Communism.

Friedrich Nietzsche and other Philosophers have made critized Asian. Nietsche used the words "Pallid osification" to describe Orientals.

Pallid: lacking sparkle or liveliness, dull.

Osification: Process of becoming inflexible: the process of becoming set and inflexible in behavior, attitudes, and actions. Inflexible conformity: rigid, unthinking acceptance of social conventions.

The reality is Asian people have yet to understand that laws and rules are arbitrary. Europeans make the rules and Asian's follow them.

It also doesn't make sense that Asian's are considered smart because of the fact that they have destroyed their own countries. This is due to over-population and their basic lack of enviromental understanding.

It is also common scientific fact that women who have many children are ignorant, and those who have less children are more intelligent. This has already been proven in studies. So it seems strange to say that Asians are smart when the obviousness of their backwards countries, and medieval lifestyle makes them contrary to that premise.

Europeans have the most advanced civilizations and every other race has yet to meet these levels other than the Japanese. The Japanese only being good at copying other people's inventions and making them better. Other than that their original creativity is lacking as well. They took American cars and made them better. They took the German camera and made it better. And they took German steel and made it better. Otherwise the greatest advances still come from Europeans and Jews. Other than that the Orientals have yet to produce an Einstein or a Thomas Edison.

When it comes to Black people. It makes sense that they have low intellectual comformity, I.e. IQ tests. They are far too creative to be trapped in this unoriginal form of conditioning. You can tell their creative capacity in their athletics, music, dance, and the way they talk. They by far exceed the Asiatic races in these areas. Being better singers, musicians ect. Blacks far exceed Asians in emotive expression. In all of North America there is only one or two famous high-paid Asian actors.

Reality, Europeans rule the world and they have allowed others to exist only out of desire for economic bennifet. They, (Europeans) are also the physically strongest, winning the Strongest Man competitions again and again. And they have become the most effective hunters due to their neccesity for animal food stuffs in a northern climate with lack of vegetables.

The greater the conformity, the weaker the race. Thus we see the races as they are today. The wild animal being bred out of man, and the physically impotent, conformist thriving.

Otherwise "Group psychology" is the most destructive thing in the world. All these stereotypes are false when it comes to the individual. Individualism is the most important thing for this time. All countries, Relgions, groups need to dissolve for man to live in peace.

Chad Mitchell

Why are genetic influences on behavior so vehemently opposed? I don't know fully, but I would suggest one of the main reasons is that people equate "influence" with "determine." Even if genes account for 80% of the variation in intelligence (which they more than likely do not), it doesn't mean that 80% of our intelligence is determined by our genes.

You also have to keep in mind that the averages of groups are being evaluated. One group of people having a higher IQ on average than another group says nothing about the individuals in that group. It's bad science to judge individuals by the average properties of the group they belong to. So, even if the average IQ of one group is larger than the IQ of another, you would still not be able to predict if an individual's IQ out of one group is larger or smaller than an individual out of the other group. Group averages say little to nothing about individuals.

See Steven Pinker's "The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature" for an excellent argument for human nature.

David Thomson

I find it amazing that so many of news media and medical doctors discourgage the use of hgh thearpy. They point to certian clinical trials that indictate an increased risk of cancer and other side effects. I found this site at hghsideffects.com shows the clinical trials they use to be skewed and misleading. It also shows very large clinical trials that clearly demonstrate that hgh thearpy actually significantly reduced the risk of cancer and diabetes. There is also many trials described on this site that demonstrate termendous and numerous health benefits that far out weight any so called cancer risks.


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